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Credits: 3


Catalog Description: EE 432 Digital Electronics                                       (3+0+0)
Basic waveshapes and fundamentals of digital electronics. Principles of
Metaloxide Semiconductor (MOS) transistor, operation of MOS inverters and
gate curcuits (NMOS, CMOS). Principles of bipolar junction transistors
(BJT), operation of BJT inverters and gate circuits (TTL, ECL), semiconductor memories.                                           Prerequisite: EE 334

Coordinator: Yasemin P. Kahya, Professor of Electrical Engineering


Goals: This course is designed to give seniors in electrical engineering an ability to comprehend and analyze the design and operation of digital integrated circuits with the CMOS as the dominant IC technology. The working knowledge of different technologies is presented addressing the transistor-level design issues.


Learning Objectives:


At the end of this course, students will be able to:


Explain and design basic inverter circuits using MOSFET, CMOS and BJT technologies.
Compare different logic families, their operation characteristics and IC structures.
Describe the operation of different load devices in MOS inverters and simple timing and power calculations.
Explain the static design issues such as gate sizing for NANDs, NORs, and complex gates in CMOS technology.
Describe capacitance calculations in CMOS gates.
Calculate CMOS gate switching times and explain gate sizing for optimal delay using logical effort.
Describe and compare TTL and  ECL logic families.

Textbook: David A. Hodges, Horace G. Jackson, Resve A. Saleh, Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits, 3rd ed., Mc Graw Hill Book Company, 2004.

Reference Text: Thomas A. DeMassa, Zack Ciccone, Digital Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons Book Company, 1996

Prerequisites by Topic:

Basic Electronics
Frequency-domain analysis techniques
Multi-stage amplifiers and their frequency response
Basic skills in PSpice



1.    Basic waveshape and digital electronics fundamentals ( 1 Lecture Hour )

Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Fundamentals ( 7 Lecture Hours )
Structure and Operation of the MOS Transistor
Threshold Voltage of the MOS Transistor
First-Order Current-Voltage Characteristics
Velocity-Saturated Current Equations
Subthreshold Conduction
Capacitances of the MOS Transistor (thin-oxide capacitance, pn junction capacitance, overlap capacitance)
Operation of MOS Inverters ( 8 Lecture Hours )
Static NMOS Inverter Analysis
Transistors as Load Devices: Saturated Enhancement Load; Linear Enhancement Load
CMOS Inverter Analyis
Pseudo-NMOS Inverters
Sizing Inverters
Tristate Inverters
Static MOS Gate Circuits ( 10 Lecture Hours )
CMOS Gate Circuits (gate sizing, fanin/fanout, VTC)
Complex CMOS Gates
XOR and XNOR Gates
Multiplexer Circuits
Flip-Flops and Latches (SR latch, JK fip-flop, JK master-slave flip-flop, JK edge-triggered flip-flop, D flip-flop and latches)
Power Dissipation in CMOS (dynamic and static)
High-Speed CMOS Logic Design ( 9 Lecture Hours )
Switching Time Analysis (gate sizing)
Load Capacitance (fanout gate capacitance, self-capacitance, wire capacitance)
Gate Sizing for Optimal Path Delay
Optimizing Paths with Logical Effort (logical effort, branching effort, sideloads)
Bipolar Digital Gate Circuits ( 4 Lecture Hours )
TTL: Standard, Schottky-Clamped
ECL: 10K Series

Course Structure: The class meets for three lectures a week, each consisting of  50-minute sessions. 4-5 sets of homework problems are assigned per semester.  There are two in-class mid-term exam and a final exam. There is one PSpice assignment for circuit realization.

Computer Resources: Students are given assignments based on PSpice to realize different logic family circuits.

Laboratory Resources: The PSpice project is carried out in the computer laboratory.




1. Two Midterms ( 20% X 2 = 40% )

2. Final ( 40% )

3. Weekly Homework Assignments and Quizzes ( 10% )

4. One homework assignment using SPICE simulation program ( 10% )


Outcome Coverage:


(a) Apply math, science and engineering knowledge.  This course is about general digital electronic circuit principles and applications using different logic families. Different tools from mathematics (differential equations, complex variables) in frequency domain analysis as well as from sciences (physics) in device modeling and engineering (electronics) in circuit analysis and design are heavily drawn upon during lectures, homework sets, exams and PSpice assignments.

(c) Design a system, component or process to meet desired needs. Designing digital circuits using different logic families constitute an important component of course material. The design approach is further reinforced in Pspice assignments which involve designing digital circuits using different families.

(g) Ability to communicate effectively. Students are required to write a laboratory report on their PSpice assignments and part of the grade is based on the writing style, technical content and presentation quality.

 (k) Use of modern engineering tools. Students use PSpice for their homework and project assignments.


Prepared By: Yasemin P. Kahya


Boğaziçi Üniversitesi - Elektrik ve Elektronik Mühendisliği Bölümü

34342 - Bebek / İSTANBUL

Tel: +90 212 359 64 14
Fax: +90 212 287 24 65







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